Sand dunes are superb. They sing, they transfer, they set up into common constructions—after which these constructions can disintegrate. Dunes can collide and mix right into a single dune, and a single dune can break into a number of dunes. We’re all acquainted with footage of dune fields within the desert, however it’s possible you’ll not notice that the ripples of sand which might be on the ocean flooring are additionally dunes—simply on a unique scale. To check our understanding of sand dune fashions, physicists have been taking part in with underwater sandcastles. The result’s that the fashions are OK however want work.
Dunes aren’t only a creation of sand; they’re the results of a mixed effort between free-flowing sand and a fluid (water or air) that strikes it about. Understanding these dynamics includes a mixture of modeling and measurement.
But the modeling is… difficult. A single dune includes too many particles to create a particle mannequin, so researchers have provide you with a brief lower: they mannequin dunes as autonomous blobs that may careen in regards to the desert. Because the dunes transfer and collide with one another, they trade mass. Finally, all of the dunes find yourself with the identical mass and transfer on the identical pace, which leads to common constructions, like we observe in dune fields and stream beds.
So the mannequin is fairly good, and it is not prefer it was pulled out of skinny air. The traits of the mannequin are based mostly on observations. However that doesn’t imply it’s proper.
To uncover the dynamics of dune movement, a bunch of researchers arrange a really cool experiment: they created a pair of dunes in a donut-shaped water tank, separated by a couple of quarter of a flip. Then, they stirred the water violently sufficient to create a extremely turbulent circulation and watched what occurred.
If the mannequin was appropriate, the 2 dunes would find yourself shifting on the identical pace. However to ensure that that to occur, they must trade mass till the 2 dunes have been the identical measurement.
All stirred up
Nonetheless, that is not what occurred. As an alternative, the downstream dune would fortunately take off, shifting at an enormous 16 meters per hour, whereas the upstream dune would battle alongside at a paltry 12 meters per hour. Because the downstream dune bought additional forward, it slowed down. This is able to go on till the 2 dunes have been reverse one another, at which level they’d find yourself shifting on the identical pace. And at that time, it now not made sense to refer to at least one as upstream of the opposite—they have been balanced.
At no level on this course of do the dunes trade vital mass. Fairly merely, so long as the dunes are above a sure threshold in measurement, they all the time find yourself in a balanced place, although the pace and different particulars differ.
The important thing, in line with the researchers, is turbulence. The circulation generated by the experiment is very turbulent (as it could be in nature as properly), and the form of the dunes additionally generates extra turbulence. Video evaluation exhibits that the upstream dune experiences numerous particle movement pushed by turbulence, whereas the downstream dune appears to take a seat in its personal patch of comparative calm. When the dunes are shifting on the identical pace, their particle movement is about the identical, too.
Even when the dunes are considerably totally different in measurement, the turbulence seems to forestall them from colliding. The dunes attain the identical pace earlier than they get to an angle of 180 levels when there are giant mass variations. On longer time scales, the steadiness just isn’t secure. The upstream dune will slowly lose mass to the downstream dune, though this happens with out the dunes coming nearer to one another.
We must always, nevertheless, keep in mind that this work was carried out in water. The steadiness of mass between the fluid medium and the sand additionally performs a task in dune dynamics. In air, that steadiness is significantly totally different.
Nonetheless, this work exhibits a few discoveries. First, the autonomous mannequin just isn’t too dangerous, particularly at very long time scales. The altering mass steadiness and eventual pace steadiness are predicted by the mannequin. Collision avoidance, nevertheless, just isn’t predicted by the mannequin. In precise experiments, the dunes don’t collide, which tells us one thing about what’s incorrect with the mannequin.
However nature tells us one thing else as properly: dunes do generally collide, however there may be additionally some proof for repulsion between dunes. General, I believe this tells us that modelers are simply going to must grit their enamel and embrace turbulence. Higher they than I.
Bodily Evaluate Letters, 2020, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.054501 (About DOIs)